The first breast augmentation in aesthetic medicine took place in the 19th century. For the first time it was done with liquid paraffin injected. Since 1895, people have tried to carry out the implantation through the various components, including ivory, wool and synthetic materials.
Silicone implants were first developed in the US in 1961, by two plastic surgeons from Houston – Thomas Cronin and Frank Jeroen. Three years later the company Arion modified the implants by replacing silicone implants to saline filler.
Many twists and turns with the FDA led to the fact that the use of implants for breast augmentation was banned since the early ’90s in the United States, and it was allowed to make such operations only for purposes related to reconstructive surgery. Implants have been banned in the US until 2006.
Preparation for breast augmentation surgery
Consultation involves examination of the patient; the doctor takes into consideration her complaints and wishes. In the case of a satisfactory outcome of the talks and mutually agreed solutions, it is assigned a list of examinations and analyzes, as well as the expected date of the operation.
While choosing a doctor, a patient should read all the reviews, backed up by photos and a complete history of breast augmentation surgery. You should pay attention to what analyzes and recommendations this surgeon gives. Among them must be:
- blood tests, including coagulation (clotting study)
- tests for infectious diseases.
Types of implants
The form of breast implants
Breast implants are available in round and teardrop-shaped (anatomical) forms. The latter is the closest to the natural shape of the female breast and as a result – a much more urgent and expensive.
However, in some cases, the optimal, from aesthetic point of view, result is achieved when using round implants – it depends on the individual features of the structure of the breasts. So, anatomic implants are more commonly used to increase the flat chest, and round implants – to increase and / or improve the shape of sagging breasts.
A patient should pay attention to the size and shape of the proposed implants. Most often, it is easier to install round shape implants, but if the patient wants to make her breasts more natural, she should opt for anatomical (tear drop-shaped) implants.
The manufacturer also plays a significant role; the content of implants, a guarantee against it’s injuries and the price depend on it.
For breast reconstruction, augmentation or improving it’s esthetics (shape and texture) there are three types of implants:
- saline implants are filled with sterile salt water
- Silicone implants are filled with silicone gel
- implants with other excipients (soybean oil, polypropylene, etc.). They are no longer manufactured and went out of use.
Saline breast implants
Saline breast implants are filled with saline (with biological concentration of salt in water (0.90% sodium chloride). The First, who realized to use saline instead of silicone, was a French surgeon Henri Arion. In 1964 he presented his invention to public. The technology of filling the implant with saline, allowed to make the operation through a smaller incision and to avoid unpleasant complications of silicone implants. However, their unnatural look, forced to look for new fillers.
Disadvantages of saline prostheses
- They creak, rustle, sometimes squish
- less viscous – less natural breast
- May shrink, create folds on the skin.
Silicone breast implants
The appearance of these implants has been a real revolution in breast plastic surgery. The first operation with their use has occurred in 1962 in the USA. The inventors, American surgeons Thomas Cronin and Frank Gerow from Houston (Texas) a year earlier, in 1961, sold the patent for the production of silicone breast implants to the company Dow Corning Corporation. Those first implants were not perfect and had a large number of defects and side effects. Dow Corning’s failed to keep the leadership in the market of consumables for plastic surgery, numerous lawsuits from affected patients, due to the low quality of implants, put the corporation on the brink of bankruptcy and forced to abandon this part of business. Anyway, today in the USA, Dow Corning is a co-founder of a similar venture in China, the brand name can be translated as “Shanghai winner.” Shanghai implants are approved for use in clinical practice neither in the United States nor in Europe. Today it is recognized and officially approved in plastic surgery the fifth generation of implants filled with silicone gel, which differ from each other by a number of characteristics and properties depending on the manufacturer. Speaking about today’s silicone breast implants we can say with confidence that they have no affect on the development of autoimmune or carcinogenic processes in the female body. At present, silicone is considered to be a harmless substance. Many prominent experts and institutions continue to study the safety of breast implants.
The size of breast implants
The size of implants is calculated due to the amount of filler – in milliliters. In a simplified form, one breast size corresponds to about 150 ml of the filler. Thus, a 300 ml implant corresponds to the “second” size.
The size of the implants is added to the natural breast size – so a patient with the B cup size after the implantation of a 300-ml implant will receive the D size.
Breast implants can be fixed and expandable – in the latter case, the filler is injected directly into the shell during the surgery. The surgeon can adjust the size of the breast in “real time”, adding, or conversely, reducing the volume.
The surface of implants
Breast implants shells may have a smooth or textured surface. The fibrous capsule is formed around the inserted implant, which is a normal physiological reaction of the organism to the alien body. In some women, the capsule may be too dense and therefore provide too much pressure on the shell of the implant and cause deformation of the breast contour. This phenomenon is called capsular contracture. In order to reduce the risk of capsular contracture, the implants with a textured shell were specially designed. Textured implants are placed above the chest muscle and smooth implants placed under the chest muscle. Anyway, you should discuss with a surgeon, which implant to choose – with a textured or smooth shell.
The patient and the doctor must determine the shape, size and texture of implants together, but the last word should be left to the professional. In addition to the patient’s wishes, the surgeon will take into consideration such characteristics of the organism, as the width of the thorax, the proportions of the body, and the density of the skin and it’s overall condition.
What factors should be taken into account?
- Many of the changes that will happen to your breasts due to the installation of implants are irreversible. If you want to get rid of the prosthesis later, you will have folds, wrinkles and other cosmetic defects.
- Installation of breast prosthesis may affect the ability to breast-feeding. Furthermore, implants do not guarantee the preservation of the breast shape after pregnancy.
- After installing the implants it is difficult to get a mammogram. To improve the efficiency of the examination you will need to do additional screening, which means an increased duration of the procedure and the radiation dose.