Carcinoma is malignant formations in different organs and skin. Today, the death rate of this disease takes the second place while cardiovascular diseases take the first place.
Women are more often affected by carcinoma of the breast, cervix, lungs, stomach, and intestine. And men suffer from carcinoma of the prostate, liver, lungs, esophagus, and intestine. A real chance to beat this disease is when it is diagnosed at an early stage. But modern technology helps overcome aggressive carcinoma successfully today. The key thing is to know the possible symptoms of the disease and take preventive medical examinations timely.
There are several types of carcinoma, depending on the structural cell components, it is divided into:
- squamous cell carcinoma, which starts in the skin. When diagnosed with cancer of the rectum, esophagus or skin we deal with this type of carcinoma;
- adenocarcinoma, the development of which takes place in the glandular epithelium. This carcinoma of the prostate, breast, bronchus.
Depending on the amount of cells of abnormal formations – cancerous (parenchyma) or connective (stroma), carcinoma is divided into:
- simple cell carcinoma, in which the amount of cells are approximately equal;
- medullary carcinoma, when parenchyma is predominant;
- large carcinoma, there are a large number of connective tissue.
Depending on the affected part of the body, carcinoma is divided into:
- carcinoma of the respiratory system (bronchi, lungs);
- hepatocellular carcinoma affects the liver;
- female genital cancer;
- bladder cancer;
- prostate cancer. Diseases such as adenoma and carcinoma of the prostate are related. The difference is that the adenoma is a benign tumor and cancer is malignant;
- infiltrating carcinoma is the most common disease of the breast;
- nasopharynx cancer is a malignant neoplasm that starts in the upper area of the nasopharynx. Most often, people of Africa suffer from it.
In addition to these organs mentioned above, a carcinoma’s photo can be found in the Internet, it can develop on the lips, pancreas, ovaries and vagina.
There is also an international classification of cancers, according to which the TNM system exists:
- ? – tumor, the size and extent of the disease;
- N –nodulus, the amount of spread to nearbylymph nodes;
- ? –metastasis, the presence of metastasis in other parts of the body.
Doctors combine the T,N,M results to determine the stage of cancer for each person. Most cancers have four stages: stages I (one) to IV (four). Some cancers also have a stage 0 (zero).
- Stage 0. This stage describes cancer in situ, which means “in place.” Stage 0 cancers are still located in the place they started and have not spread to nearby tissues. This stage of cancer is often highly curable, usually by removing the entire tumor with surgery.
- Stage I. This stage is usually a small cancer or tumor that has not grown deeply into nearby tissues. It also has not spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. It is often called early-stage cancer.
- Stage II and III. These stages indicate larger cancers or tumors that have grown more deeply into nearby tissue. They may have also spread to lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.
- Stage IV. This stage means that the cancer has spread to other organs or parts of the body. It may also be called advanced or metastatic cancer.
Symptoms of carcinoma may vary, depending on where the tumor is located. Carcinoma in situ usually has no particular symptoms. It is often detected during preventive medical examinations.
As the tumor grows, it may be accompanied by symptoms such as swelling in the affected area, bleeding, pain, dysfunction of the affected organ, loss of appetite, weight loss, and weakness.
Diagnosis and Treatment
It is important to remember: the earlier carcinoma is detected, the higher chance to beat it. Modern medicine uses a lot of different techniques of detecting the disease:
- endoscopic examinations (cystoscopy, bronchoscopy, fibrogastroduodenoscopy);
- analyzes of blood (general, biochemistry, and squamous cell carcinoma antigen);
- MRI – magnetic resonance imaging;
- CT – computed tomography;
- histological examination after biopsy.
When the diagnosis of carcinoma takes place the treatment depends on the location of the tumor and the stage of the disease. Modern methods of treatment are used such as:
- surgery, where the tumor, the affected tissue, sometimes the entire affected organ is removed;
- chemotherapy involves taking various drugs that destroy cancer cells and slow the growth of the tumor;
- radiotherapy is used before surgery;
- neutron therapy is an innovative method when dealing with carcinoma. Treatment consists of irradiation of the tumor by neutrons;
- gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease;
- chemoembolization is the impact of toxic substances on cancer cells;
- immunotherapy where the immune system is improved by means of special vaccines.
A combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is the most common and effective way of treatment.
Unfortunately, there is no common cause of carcinoma, that is why it is difficult to determine the preventive measures. But you should understand the earlier cancer is found out, the higher chance of a full recovery. Therefore it is important to take regular medical exams, and in case of occurrence of the slightest suspicious symptoms you should go to the doctor.